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NewsID : 197565
Date of publication : 1/30/2019 7:59:41 PM
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Date: 30.11.2018

Cognition of Quran (10)


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ

ثم الصلاه و السلام علی محمد عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون

اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه.


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We talked about the Qur'an's response to the second question, "What is the purpose of the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the purpose of human creation?" We said that the cause of the creation of mankind in the Qur'an is the evolution of mankind and being close to God, Which the eternal bliss in life is the result of that. Last week, to answer to this second question , we discussed about another issue in the Holy Qur'an to complete the statement of the purpose of creation, and to show the way of education and guidance of man

 

Another important topic that everyone expects from the Holy Qur'an is "what should be done?" The discussion below which answers the question I have come for what?" Is classified as the subject of "practical commandments

 

Practical commandments

According to the famous saying, about 500 verses of Quranic verses are about practical commandments, which are called "al-ahkam verses". The Al-ahkam are verses that relate to jurisprudential rulings and practical assignments. In other words, it refers to those verses of the Quran that express the practical commandments of Islam. Of course, the number of these verses is from three hundred verses to eight hundred verses, but it seems that the verses of al-Ahkam are more than these. According to the Bohrani in the sharif tafsir, one quarter of the Qur'an's verses are made up of decrees and ordinances.

Several books have been written by Islamic scholars to interpret these verses of the Qur'an, which are referred to as the Islamic jurisprudential title, sometimes referred to as the Qur'an jurisprudence, such as " Jurisprudence of Quran from ghotb ravandi ", sometimes interpreted as " Commentary  of al-ahkam verses", such as "verses of al-ahkam from jorjani", and sometimes the rules of the Qur'an, such as "ahkam al-quran abn arabi

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Inferential position of al-ahkam verses

The Holy Qur'an is the first and most authentic source of the Shari'a of Islam, and explains and narrates the Divine Book, not a source along with it

Therefore, the Qur'an is a measure of narratives that part of the narrations that are consistent with the Qur'an are accepted, and anything that opposes it is not put into practice. Therefore, they recognize the recognition of the verses of al-Ahkam to be one of the conditions of ijtihad

 

Features of Quran verdicts

Since the Holy Quran is a pedagogical guidance book and it expresses all that is effective in guiding man to true and eternal prosperity, the plot of jurisprudential issues in the Qur'an is also appropriate for this purpose; this has led the verses of Al-Ahkam to be Different from juridical legal books, some of which are


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General statement and mention

Usually the sentences are compressed and pointed at the general level. One of the benefits of this feature is that the characteristics of the judgments, according to different circumstances, are inferred. The Holy Quran in general says

أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَوْفُوا بِالْعُقُودِ (مائده: ۱)

O you who believe! Fulfill your commitments

 

« يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْكُمْ (نساء:۲۹)

O you who believe! Do not consume each other’s wealth illicitly, but trade by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves, for God is Merciful towards you.

 

Accompanying the expression of verses with the warning and publicity

Expression of verdicts in the Qur'an is intriguingly accompanied by persuasion or threats and warnings, and the language of the law is proportionate to the importance of the sentence and goes up and down:

The Qur'an says soft and gentle expressions about the will

کُتِبَ عَلَیکُم إِذا حَضَرَ أَحدَکُمُ المَوتُ إِن تَرَکَ خَیرًا الْوَصِیّةُ لِلولِدَینِ و الأَقرَبِینَ بِالمَعرُوفِ حَقّـًا عَلَی المُتَّقِین (بقره:180)

It is decreed for you: when death approaches one of you, and he leaves wealth, to make a testament in favor of the parents and the relatives, fairly and correctly—a duty upon the righteous.

The Qur'an tells us about the obligatory nature of fasting with the encouraging tone

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ (بقره:183)

O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become righteous.

The tune of the Qur'an in the formulation of sentences is sometimes threatened and the fact of leaving the duty is mentioned with its consequences. In the issue of Haj of Baitullah Al-Haram, after pronouncing its rules, it says

وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴿بقره:۱۹۶﴾

And remain conscious of God, and know that God is stern in retribution.

And sometimes the tone of warning becomes even more intense and the issue of declaring war with God and the Prophet is raised

یأَیّهَا الَّذِینَ ءَامَنوا اتَّقُوا اللّهَ وَ ذَرُوا مَا بَقِیَ مِنَ الرِّبواْ إِن کُنتُم مُؤمِنِین؛ فَإِن لَم تَفْعَلوا فَأذَنُوا بِحَرب مِن اللّهِ وَ رَسولِه...(بقره:278-279)

O you who believe! Fear God, and forgo what remains of usury, if you are believers. If you do not, then take notice of a war by God and His Messenger

Among the benefits of this form of expression, in addition to expressing the philosophy and the outcome of the action, is that it leads the audience to practice or to forbid the act of haram; also, where conflicts between the two duties, reveal more important things

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All sorts of al-ahkam verses

The verses of al-Ahkam can be divided in various ways, which are referred to as examples:

Some of the verses indicate that the religious order is independent. For example

أَحَلَّ اللّٰهُ الْبَيْعَ وَ حَرَّمَ الرِّبٰا(بقره:275)

God has permitted commerce, and has forbidden usury

But others are implied in the same way. Like this verse

وَ فِصٰالُهُ فِي عٰامَيْنِ(لقمان:14)

His mother carried him through hardship upon hardship

And to the appendix of the verse

وَ حَمْلُهُ وَ فِصٰالُهُ ثَلٰاثُونَ شَهْراً (احقاف:15)

The term of the baby's growth in the mother's womb and infancy is thirty months; it is estimated that the minimum time to carry and grow the baby in the mother's womb is six months.

Some of verses are صيغه انشاء like :

أَقِيمُوا الصَّلٰاةَ (بقره:۴۳)

And some other called هيئت اخبار , same as :

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ (مائده:۳)

Some are with God's direct command :

أَقِيمُوا الصَّلٰاةَ (بقره:۴۳)

And some with an indirect order like :

قُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِمْ وَيَحْفَظُوا فُرُوجَهُمْ ... وَقُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ ... (نور:30-31)

Tell the believing men to restrain their looks, and to guard their privates. That is purer for them. God is cognizant of what they do. And tell the believing women to restrain their looks, and to guard their privates

The signification of certain verses is a matter of duty, such as the need for fasting and the reverence for eating the dead meat , which is in accordance with the verses of

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيٰامُ(بقره:۱۸۳)

And

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ(مائده:۳)

And the other signification is the condition, such as the failure (batil) of a sick person fasting or fast in a journey

مَنْ كٰانَ مَرِيضاً أَوْ عَلىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيّٰامٍ أُخَرَ(بقره:۱۸۵)

And some of the other verses contain general rules , such as the rule of 'Asr and Harj

مٰا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ(حج:۷۸)» و «يُرِيدُ اللّٰهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَ لٰا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ(بقره:۱۸۵)

Some verses represent the customs of the association of muslims with the prophet of Allah, such as

يٰا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لٰا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوٰاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ(حجرات:۲)

And others, shows how are the social relationships of muslims and the limits and principles of healthy living in the Islamic society. Such As

يٰا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيراً مِنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَ لٰا تَجَسَّسُوا وَ لٰا يَغْتَبْ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً(حجرات:۱۲)

Which directs the avoidance of suspicion, investigation into others' affairs and absenteeism

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