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کد خبر : 67937
تاریخ انتشار : 2/3/2015 1:50:05 PM
تعداد بازدید : 525

Book-Burning or Genocide

In almost every other genocidal European expansion, books and manuscripts of the target population were destroyed. European conquests of the new world, which ironically happened at the same time as the Spanish Inquisition also wiped out the ancient civilizations of the new continent.

By Mohsen Biparva

Next time you visit the National Gallery in London (walking through room 18 to be ex-act), pause for a minute and try to find a painting called "Saint Paul Preaching at Ephesus" by the French painter Eustache Le Sueur. The paint-ing in the National Gallery is probably a sketch of the large-scale painting housed in Notre-Dame in Paris. The painting of course depicts Saint Paul preaching at Ephesus (very similar to Raphael's painting Academy of Athens), but what is striking is the scene in the foreground. There is a pile of books and scrolls with someone clearly trying to put them into a fire. According to the New Testament (Acts 19:19-20) Saint Paul's preaching was so influential that a group of Jews and Greeks who were practicing "curious arts" (probably magic or astrology) gathered their books and burned them all. The New Testament even gives us the value of the books: fifty thousand silver coins.  I do not intend to find any theological conclusion or argue anything against or in favor of New Testament's story. The only thing I would like to get from the painting is that by the time it was created in 1649, the practice of book-burning or in a more technical term biblioclaism was not as taboo as many consider it to be today.

We are all familiar with the famous quote or rather the poem by Heinrich Heine: "where they burn books, they will ultimately burn people also". In this pas-sage of the 1821 "Tragedy of Almansor", Heinrich Heine refers to the burning of the Qur'an by the Spanish Inquisition. In 1499 thousands of Arabic manuscripts were burnt in the public square of Granada, where at the same time nonbelievers were also put on fire; mostly Jews and Muslims. Ironically in 1933 when the Nazis started their book-burning campaign, Heinrich Heine's books where among so called "Un-German" and "de-generated "books and condemned to be torched. Heine was right, in both incidents, the Spanish Inquisition and Nazi Germany, book-burning tragically led directly to burning of people. Heinrich Heine's words came to life once again 20 years ago when the National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina (NUB) was set alight with its 1.5 to 2 million volumes and 150,000 rare books and manuscripts. On 25t and 26t August 1992 the NUB was attacked by Serb militants. 90 per-cent of its collection was destroyed along with the complete interior of the building. Only 10 percent of the collection was saved although it sustained severe water damage. During the siege of Sarajevo which lasted from April 1992 to February 1996, thousands of civilians including children were killed. On April 1994 Federico Mayor, the Director General of UNESCO, called the destruction of the library "an act of barbarism perpetrated in the context of a whole series of assaults on the national heritage." One may wonder why a national library became a primary target in a military conflict. What could be achieved militarily by destroying a library? I find the answer in Heinrich Heine's famous words. Those who burn books are the same who burn people. In other words, no ethnic cleansing mission is complete without wiping out the victims' heritage, their history and their culture. In the Srebrenica genocide alone, units of the Serbian nation-al army killed more than 8000 civilians, mostly men and boys, then raped the women in a classic case of ethnic cleansing. The massacre happened while the UN Security Council through its resolution 819 had previously declared Srebrenica a "safe area". In July 1995 the Serb army entered the city while it was being protected by Dutch peacekeepers. In a very bizarre episode, Dutch soldiers not only handed over the city to Serbs and left weapons, ammunition, food and medical supplies, they also traded 5000 Muslims who had been sheltering in their base for 14 Dutch soldiers being held by the Serbs. The National Library was not the only victim of the cultural genocide. Other libraries such as the university library of Mostar, 15,000 manuscripts from the Oriental Institute of Sarajevo and 50,000 books of the Franciscan Theo-logical Seminary Library had been hit by the same fate. Nevertheless, the NUB collection, as well as its Moorish style building, was by far the most important. Among the few hundred manuscripts that were rescued, was Bosnia's cultural treasure, a 14th century Jewish Haggadah known as Sarajevo Haggadah. The illustrated book was the work of a Jewish artist and calligrapher produced in Islamic Spain and smuggled out during the Spanish Inquisition. Later during WWII the book was again concealed from the Nazis. In an exemplary journey of 500 years, this book had escaped three major book-burnings and genocides.

In recent years we have witnessed a new wave of book-burning incidents. Last year President Obama apologized to the Afghan people for the burning of copies of the Qur'an by American troops. He called the incident Inadvertent". The top US and NATO commander General John Allen told the media that the copies of Qur'an "were mistakenly sent to be incinerated". Other similar stories such as the American pastor who had planned to burn copies of the Qur'an are also very alarming. Obviously, the Qur'an has been the tar-get of several book-burnings in history among other Muslim texts and manu-scripts as well as Jewish texts. But Muslims and Jews were not alone. In almost every other genocidal European expansion, books and manuscripts of the target population were destroyed. European conquests of the new world, which ironically happened at the same time as the Spanish Inquisition also wiped out the ancient civilizations of the new continent. These days, if you are curious about the 2012 phenomenon and the "end of the world" as predicted by the Mayans, you should know that Spanish conquistadors wiped out Mayan books too. The prediction about the end of the world is interpreted from one of the only three surviving Maya codices known as the codex of Dresden. It would be a great irony if from the entire Mayan books, the only surviving one, is the one that has predicted our extinction.

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