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NewsID : 197504
Date of publication : 1/22/2019 5:54:00 PM
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Cognition of Quran (2)

Cognition of Quran (2)

The quality of revelation

We said that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would feel heavier when he returned to direct revelation, and his heavy body was hot when it came to him, and sweat flowed from his forehead. If he was riding a camel or a horse, the animal's waist would bend and reach the ground. Ali (peace upon him) says: "When the Surah al-Ma'eda was sent down to the Prophet, He were seated on a camel called "Shahbah ".The revelation was so heavy so the animal was stood and its abdomen lowered. I saw that camel’s Navel was approaching the ground; at that time, the Prophet fainted and placed his hand on one of the Companions ... "[1]. Ebadat ibn Samaet says: "When the revelation sent down to the Prophet, there was some changes in his face and also his face color changed among revelation. At the same time, he threw his head down, and the Companions did it as well as the prophet "[2].

 

The story of Waraka ibn Nawfal

He was a Khadijeh’s cousin and a low-educated person who was aware of the history of the Prophet’s. They say that he saved the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from the fear that occurred for him at the beginning of his prophecy.

Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Hisham and Tabarī described the event as follows:

When Mohammad, peace be upon him and his family, was praying his God in the cave of Hara, he suddenly heared a voice that was calling for him. He raised his head to know who it was, and he saw a terrible creature. Every where he looked, he saw the same thing. Because of the horror he fainted out and this mode remained for a long time. Khadijah, who was worried about his delay, sent someone to see where he is. But he did not find him until the Prophet (peace be upon him) woke up and went home, but he was in a terrible state. Khadija asked: What is going on with? He said: "The thing that I was afraid from it came to me!" Khadija said, "Do not think bad for yourself." You are the man of God, and God does not forsake you. Probably the future is clear ... Then, in order to resolve the complete concern of the Prophet (peace be upon him), she took him to the house of Waraka ibn Nawfal and told him the story. He asked a few questions from the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: "Do not worry, this is the Angel that has been revealed to Musa and has now been revealed to you and promises you prophecy. This is where the Prophet (peace be upon him), said: "Now I know that I’m the prophet.

This story is one of the fake stories of the first two centuries of Islam, which introduced itself as a Muslim story, by making such legendary tales, while stirring up the public, stirred people's opinions and made Islam weak.

How is it that a prophet who has reached perfection and has long proudly propounded prophecy, the facts have not been revealed to him? While finding the highest intellect. How a man who is so perfect is then concerned about himself and doubts himself, then, with the experience of a woman and the question of a man who is a little illiterate, this concern is eliminated from him, then he assures that he is the Prophet?!

In addition to the above mentioned problems, other problems are as follows:

1.   The story chain does not come to the first person who sees the story, hence the narrative of this story is unknown.

2.   The storytelling dispute is a certificate of its falsehood. One of the following is said: Khadijah himself went to Waraka alone; the other one said that he took the Prophet with her; in the third, Waraka saw the Prophet in Tawaf, asked him and then told him; in the fourth Abu Bakr arrived at Khadijeh and said, "Send Muhammad to Waraka. The difference in the text is so much that the reader is stunned by whom to believe, and one cannot make a unite between them.

 

3.   In the context of most of the citations, Waraka in addition to promising Prophetic prophecy, he has said that, whenever I understand his prophecy, I believe in him and will help him, while he was still alive until prophecy of Prophet, but he never came to the religion of Islam.

 

Writers of the Revelation

The Prophet did not seem to read and write, and among his people he was not famous for literacy. Because they had never seen him to read or write something; so they called him "Amy". The Qur'an also reminded him of this:

 

فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ ... (اعراف: 158)

So believe in God and His Messenger, the Unlettered Prophet

هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِنْهُمْ ...( جمعه: 2)

It is He who sent among the unlettered a messenger from themselves.

 

Ami is related to the mother (mother), and they say that they are not learned to read and write like the day they were born. Not having a teacher and not being able to read and write is not equal to being unable to read or write. What is compatible with the miraculousness of the Qur'an is simply not to read or write, not to be unable to read and write. The Qur'an says:

 

 وَ ما كُنْتَ تَتْلُوا مِنْ قَبْلِهِ مِنْ كِتابٍ وَ لا تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ إِذاً لَارْتابَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ‏ ( عنكبوت: 48)

You did not read any scripture before this, nor did you write it down with your right hand; otherwise the falsifiers would have doubted.

 


This ayah is based on the fact that the Prophet did not read and write anything, but does not mean that he could not write and read, and just enough to silence opponents because he never considered the Prophet literally; therefore, they saw that this way of protest is closed on them.

In addition, literacy is perfect and illiteracy is considered to be a defect. And since all the perfections of the Prophet were due to God's special privilege and never been taught to a person and teacher (theological science), therefore the Prophet should not be free from this perfection.

The lack of pretending to be literate has been to complete the proof and close the path of protest and formation, so that no one can say that the Prophet has taken the Qur'an from the Torah and the Gospel, and is not a divine book. For this reason, the Prophet called on  clerks to write to him in various things such as revelation; therefore, in Mecca and in Medina, he selected the elite literate to write for him.

The first person who recited the verses in Mecca was Ali ibn Abi Talib (PBUH) and he continued his work until the last day of the Prophet's life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH ) also insisted that Ali write down and record what is revealed, so that nothing from the Qur'an and the divine revelation can be left out from Ali.

Ali (as) in the mosque of Kufa, when people gathered around him, said: "Do not hesitate to ask your questions to me. Ask me about the Book of God, I swear by God that no ayah was revealed unless the Prophet sang it to me and taught me to interpret it. “Abdullah ibn ‘Omar, asked: "What was that which was revealed and you were not present?" Ali (as) said: "When I came to the presence of the Prophet, he said:" In your absence, the verses were revealed, then he sang them to me and taught me to interpret them”

The first person to recite the verses in Medina was A'b ibn Ka'b Ansari. He used to know writing at the age of ignorance. Aby ibn Ka'b is the one whom the Prophet (pbuh) presented to him full verses of the Holy Quran.

Zayd abn sabit was the neighbor of Prophet in Medina. He knew how to write. Initially, when the Prophet needed to write something, and Aby ibn Ka'b was not present, Zayd was writing to him.

Therefore, the main writers of the revelation were Ali ibn Abi Talib, Aby ibn Ka'b and Zayd ibn Sabit, and other writers of revelation were in second place. Apparently these people were among those who were literate in Arab world at that time, and they knew the writing and the reading. Prophet used them in the urgent times to write for him, but the official writers were that three person named above.

At the time of the Prophet, they wrote on everything that was possible wrote on, such as:

 

1.   Osob: The middle of the branches of the palm tree, which separated the leaves and wrote in its widespread part

2.   Lekhaf : thin and small rocks

3.   Regha: Pieces of leather or sheet (leaf) or paper

4.   Odom : Animal skin prepared for writing

After writing, the verses were recorded and kept at the Prophet's house. The verses were systematically recorded in each sura, and each sura began with the descent of the Basmalah, and with the descent of the new Basmalah, the end of the sura was announced, and the surahs were separated Independently of each other by this procedure. In the time of the Prophet, no order was arranged between surahs.



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