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Date of publication : 1/25/2019 1:40:00 AM
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Cognition of Quran (4)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ

ثم الصلاه و السلام علی محمد عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون

اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه


Quran’s ayah and surah’s, Makki and Madani

The verses and surah’s that were revealed to Prophet of God before the arrival of the Muslims to Medina in the time when the main center of Muslims was the city of Mecca, are the Makki verses and surah’s, although they were revealed outside the city of Mecca. And the verses and surah’s that were sent down after the Muslims migrated to Medina at the time when the main Muslim center was the city of Medina, are said to be Madani verses and surah’s, although they were revealed outside the city of Medina.

The Quran's surahs were formed at the time of the revelation and at the prophecy of the Prophet, and the number of verses in each surah was done by the Prophet's specific command and remains unaltered until now and this remains a detention. The smallest sura consists of three verses (Surah al-Kowsar), and the largest sura contains 286 verses (Surah Baqara).

Names of surah’s have been detained, like the number of verses, and have been named by the Prophet. Most surah’s have one name and some have two or more names. These naming was done in Arabic style with the smallest occasion.

Each surah began with the descent of "Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim", and the verses were recorded in descending order, respectively, until the next "Bismillah ..." was revealed and another surah was begun. This was the natural order of verses. Sometimes the Prophet (with the order of Gibreel ) point out that the verses would be in another sura in contradiction to the natural order; same as the this ayah :

«وَ اتَّقُوا يَوْماً تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ما كَسَبَتْ وَ هُمْ لا يُظْلَمُونَ»

Which is said to be one of the last ayah’s that sent down. The Prophet ordered to record it among the verses of the Riba and the verse of Din in Surah Baqarah as verse 281. Therefore, the registration of verses in the surah’s is detained and is carried out by the Prophet's supervision and command and should be followed. But there is a difference in the order and arrangement of surah’s between religious experts. Seyyed Mortazai Alam alhoda and many scholars believe that the Qur'an, as it is today, has been formed during the life of the Prophet, and the order of the Surah’s has been determined by the Prophet.



                                               Collection of the Qur'an  

 Ali (as) was the first person to collect the Quran after the death of the Prophet. According to narrations, he was at home for six months and did it. Imam Ali says: "No verse was revealed to the Prophet unless he had read to me, and I wrote it with my own hand. He also taught me the interpret and the uncircumcised, obsolete, and similar to each verse, and then he prayed for me so that God would grant me the perception and understanding. Since that day, I have not forgotten any verse and I have not lost any knowledge that I have been taught and I wrote it."

Many other supporters also collected pages for themselves. The collectors were numerous and did not have any relationship in this regard. And they were not the same in terms of competence and ability. So the version of each had different method, order, reading, and... . Differences in pages and readings caused disagreement among the people. Muslims living in different parts began to condemn each other because of the fanaticism they had on their pages when they were gathering to participate in war or because of other relationships, and sometimes they were fighting between them because of this matter.

In the Armenian war, Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman witnessed a struggle between Muslims over the credibility and superiority of their books. When he returned from the war, while dissatisfied with the differences in people about the Qur'an, he consulted with some of the Prophet's Sahaba in Kufa to discuss this problem before it goes elsewhere and to other lands. His opinion was that Uthman was forced to equalize the pages and the people's obligation to read a certian book. all the supporters were right in agreeing with this except Abdullah ibn Mas'ud. So he ( ibn alyaman) went to Madinah to inform Uthman that he would save Muhammad’s Ummah before the dispersal.

He said to Uthman, "O Khalifa of Muslims! I warn you; save this Ummah before it fall into the same conflict that Jews and Christians have been involved with. "" What is the matter? "Oshman said," I was in the war in Armenia. There, the people of Sham, read the Qur'an in the recitation of Abī bin Ka'b, and the Iraqi people obeyed the recitation of Ibn Mas'ud, and each group affirmed the other group "

Uthman gathered together some of the Sahaba of the Prophet who were in Medina and consulted with them and agreed on the necessity of the uprising against this work. Uthman quickly began to equalize the pages. First, in a general message addressed to the Prophet's companions, he invited them to help in this action. Then, four of his men selected to perform this work: Zayd bin Sabbit who was from Ansar and Saeed bin Ass and Abd Allah bin Zubayr and Abdurrahman ibn Haris ibn Hisham, who were from the Quraysh. These four were the initial members of the Committee for the Equalization of Pages, which Zaid was top of them. Othman assumed the responsibility of supervising the four, but they could not do the job. Then, he choosed  Abī bin Ka'b, Malik ibn Abi Amar, Kathir ibn Āflāh, Anis bin Malik, Abdullah ibn Abbas, Musa'b ibn Saad, Abdullah ibn Fatima and five other people, totaling 12 people for the job. During this period Abib ibn Ka'b was in charge, who spelled the Qur'an verses and others wrote them.


Amir al-Mu'minin (AS) also agreed to this program. Ibn Abi Daoud has narrated from Su'yid ibn Ghafhl that Ali (as) said: "By God, Othman did not do anything about the pages of the Qur'an unless it was in consultation with us. He consulted with us about the readings and said some people say that my reading is better than your reading, and this is close to disbelief. I told him (Uthman) what is your opinion? Said: I think that there is only one version available to the public and that there is no difference in this area. I said it is a good idea. " He also said: "If the copies were given to me, I would have done the same as Uthman".

In the presence of Imam Sadiq (AS), someone read the Qur'an contrary to what others read. Imam (peace be upon him) said to him : "Do not read in this waz and read it as everyone do"

Therefore, the consensus of the Muslim scholars is that what is in our hands today is the same Qur'an that is complete and comprehensive, and has never been distorted, and that the famous reading among Muslims is the correct  one that and it is correct to use it in prayers and salat


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