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Date of publication : 2/10/2019 4:35:00 PM
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25.01.2019

Cognition of Quran (14)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ

ثم الصلاه و السلام علی محمد عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون

اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه

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In the previous sermons, we discussed the topic of cognition of Quranand  the verses revealed the proof of resurrection, the status of the universe on the Day of Resurrection, and the first stage of human arrival to the hereafter world. This is the fourth part of the Qur'anic verses in this regard today. In these verses, which represent the condition of mankind in the hereafter, we refer to the state of men when he sees the result of the deeds. This verses consists of three categories:

1. Verses referring to the morale of humans after the judgment of their worldly deeds

2. A series of verses that express the status of those who go to paradise and those who should go to hell because of their deeds

3. A group of verses that refer Unity of actions with rewards and punishments.

 

1.    The mental states of humans at Resurrection

The Holy Quran, in some verses, refers to the spiritual condition of humans on the Day of Resurrection, and after observing their own actions, there will be a happy and proud group and a sad group:

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُسْفِرَةٌ؛ ضَاحِكَةٌ مُسْتَبْشِرَةٌ؛ وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْهَا غَبَرَةٌ؛ تَرْهَقُهَا قَتَرَةٌ؛ اولَئِكَ هُمُ الْكَفَرَةُ الْفَجَرَةُ ﴿عبس: 38-۴۲

Faces on that Day will be radiant. Laughing and rejoicing.  And Faces on that Day will be covered with misery. Overwhelmed by remorse. These are the faithless, the vicious.

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَاضِرَةٌ؛ إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ؛ وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَاسِرَةٌ؛ تَظُنُّ أَنْ يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ (قیامه:22-25

Faces on that Day will be radiant. Looking towards their Lord. And faces on that Day will be gloomy. Realizing that a back-breaker has befallen them.

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In most cases in the holly Quran, firstly, the happy figures of the benefactors are depicted, and then it referred to the dishonest faces of the wicked, but in one case they were first addressed to the wicked, and then the benefactors:

  وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَاشِعَةٌ؛ عَامِلَةٌ نَاصِبَةٌ؛ تَصْلَى نَارًا حَامِيَةً؛ تُسْقَى مِنْ عَيْنٍ آنِيَةٍ؛ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ طَعَامٌ إِلَّا مِنْ ضَرِيعٍ؛ لَا يُسْمِنُ وَلَا يُغْنِي مِنْ جُوعٍ (غاشیه:2-7

Faces on that Day will be shamed. Laboring and exhausted. Roasting in a scorching Fire. Given to drink from a flaming spring. They will have no food except thorns. That neither nourishes, nor satisfies hunger.

  وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَاعِمَةٌ؛ لِسَعْيِهَا رَاضِيَةٌ؛ فِي جَنَّةٍ عَالِيَةٍ؛ لَا تَسْمَعُ فِيهَا لَاغِيَةً؛ فِيهَا عَيْنٌ جَارِيَةٌ؛ فِيهَا سُرُرٌ مَرْفُوعَةٌ؛ وَأَكْوَابٌ مَوْضُوعَةٌ؛ وَنَمَارِقُ مَصْفُوفَةٌ؛ وَزَرَابِيُّ مَبْثُوثَةٌ (غاشیه:8-16

Faces on that Day will be joyful. Satisfied with their endeavor. In a lofty Garden. In it you will hear no nonsense. In it is a flowing spring. In it are raised beds. And cups set in place. And cushions set in rows. And carpets spread around.

In these verses, the punishments of the wicked and the blessings of the righteous are mentioned. It seems that the cause of this primacy and delay is the effect that the expression of torments of the wicked in the past is in encouraging humans to have goodness, and the Qur'an, which is the book of human guidance, has used this method to encourage goodness.

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2.    The Situation of People of Paradise and Hell in the Hereafter

In the Holy Quran, for the infallibars, there are painful punishments, as well as many blessings for the people of Paradise. The point that we find from the verses is that either the punishment of people of hell or the blessings of people of Paradise couldn’t be repetitive or ineffective. We read about the torture of infidels:

  وَتَرَى الْمُجْرِمِينَ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُقَرَّنِينَ فِي الْأَصْفَادِ؛ سَرَابِيلُهُمْ مِنْ قَطِرَانٍ وَتَغْشَى وُجُوهَهُمُ النَّارُ؛ لِيَجْزِيَ اللَّهُ كُلَّ نَفْسٍ مَا كَسَبَتْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ (ابراهیم :49-51

On that Day, you will see the sinners bound together in chains.Their garments made of tar, and the Fire covering their faces. That God may repay each soul according to what it has earned. God is quick in reckoning.

إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَلَاسِلَ وَأَغْلَالًا وَسَعِيرًا ﴿دهر:۴﴾

We have prepared for the faithless chains, and yokes, and a Searing Fire.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُمْ بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا ﴿نساء:۵۶

Those who reject our revelations—we will scorch them in a Fire. Every time their skins are cooked, we will replace them with other skins, so they will experience the suffering. God is Most Powerful, Most Wise.

 

And regarding to the blessings of the Paradise, the Holy Quran says:

   مُتَّكِئِينَ فِيهَا عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ لَا يَرَوْنَ فِيهَا شَمْسًا وَلَا زَمْهَرِيرًا؛وَدَانِيَةً عَلَيْهِمْ ظِلَالُهَا وَذُلِّلَتْ قُطُوفُهَا تَذْلِيلًا؛ وَيُطَافُ عَلَيْهِمْ بِآنِيَةٍ مِنْ فِضَّةٍ وَأَكْوَابٍ كَانَتْ قَوَارِيرَا؛ قَوَارِيرَ مِنْ فِضَّةٍ قَدَّرُوهَا تَقْدِيرًا (دهر:13-16

Reclining therein on the thrones; experiencing therein neither sun, nor frost. Its shade hovering over them, and its fruit brought low within reach. Passing around them are vessels of silver, and cups of crystal. Crystal of silver—they measured them exactly.

  مَثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ فِيهَا أَنْهَارٌ مِنْ مَاءٍ غَيْرِ آسِنٍ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ لَبَنٍ لَمْ يَتَغَيَّرْ طَعْمُهُ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ خَمْرٍ لَذَّةٍ لِلشَّارِبِينَ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ عَسَلٍ مُصَفًّى وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ (محمد:15

The likeness of the Garden promised to the righteous: in it are rivers of pure water, and rivers of milk forever fresh, and rivers of wine delightful to the drinkers, and rivers of strained honey. And therein they will have of every fruit

    وَأُزْلِفَتِ الْجَنَّةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ؛ هَذَا مَا تُوعَدُونَ لِكُلِّ أَوَّابٍ حَفِيظٍ؛ مَنْ خَشِيَ الرَّحْمَنَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَجَاءَ بِقَلْبٍ مُنِيبٍ؛ ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَامٍ ذَلِكَ يَوْمُ الْخُلُودِ؛ لَهُمْ مَا يَشَاءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ ﴿ق: 31-۳۵

And Paradise will be brought closer to the pious, not far away. “This is what you were promised—for every careful penitent. Who inwardly feared the Most Gracious, and came with a repentant heart. Enter it in peace. This is the Day of Eternity.” Therein they will have whatever they desire—and we have even more.

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3.    Unity of actions with rewards and punishments

Several verses indicate the unity of actions with rewards or punishments, which in some way justify the embodiment of actions at the resurrection. Including:

وَقِيلَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ ذُوقُوا مَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْسِبُونَ (زمر :24

To the evildoers it will be said, “Taste what you used to earn.”

It follows from these verses that what human beings punished with is the same as good or bad deeds that they have done, although the faces of actions have changed. Therefore, in these verses, the meaning of the punishment becomes clear; as well as the way it is revealed, it is not for the sake of mental peace, but human beings are subject to the reflection of their actions.

  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَشْتَرُونَ بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا أُولَئِكَ مَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ إِلَّا النَّارَ (بقره :174

Those who conceal what God revealed in the Book, and exchange it for a small price—those swallow nothing but fire into their bellies.

It is used from the appearance of the verse that bad and unjust acts are just as fire and punishment, and the embodiment of acts is one of the reasons for it.

  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَى ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا (نساء:10

Those who consume the wealth of orphans illicitly consume only fire into their bellies; and they will roast in a Blaze.

It follows from the verse that the seizure of the unjust property of the orphans and the use of it is in fact the result of the ingestion of fire on the Day of Resurrection; a fact which in this world is unobjectionable to us and which appears in the hereafter.

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