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کد خبر : 255230
تاریخ انتشار : 4/21/2019 1:50:25 PM
تعداد بازدید : 114

Characteristic of the righteous (3)

Orator: ayatollah professor Mofatteh

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ

ثم الصلاه و السلام علی محمد عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون

اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه.


Sermon of the righteous

We said that "sermon of the righteous" is the speech from Amir al-Mu'minin in Nahj al-Balaghah, which refers to the characteristics of righteous. This sermon is also known as the " Himam Sermon ". Hemam bin Abadeh or Hemam bin Sharih, a follower of Amir al-Mu'minin, that these words are mentioned in response to his request. After the insistence of Hemam on the expression of the virtues of the pious, after some prayers and salutations to the Prophet, with reference to the monotheistic belief, he begins his speech and states:

اَمّا بَعْدُ، فَاِنَّ اللّهَ سُبْحانَهُ وَ تَعالى خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ حينَ خَلَقَهُمْ غَنِيّاً عَنْ طاعَتِهِمْ، آمِناً مِنْ مَعْصِيَتِهِمْ، لِأنَّهُ لاتَضُرُّهُ مَعْصِيَةُ مَنْ عَصاهُ، وَ لاتَنْفَعُهُ طاعَةُ مَنْ اَطاعَهُ. فَقَسَمَ بَيْنَهُمْ مَعايِشَهُمْ، وَ وَضَعَهُمْ مِنَ الدُّنْيا مَواضِعَهُمْ.

Now then, Allah the Glorified, the Sublime, created (the things of) creation. He created them without any need for their obedience or being safe from their sinning, because the sin of anyone who sins does not harm Him nor does the obedience of anyone who obeys Him benefit Him. He has distributed among them their livelihood, and has assigned them their positions in the world.


In this part, Amir al-Mu'minin refers to three attributes of the Lord's Creation, God's grace, and God's righteousness, which is not our point of discussion, so we will not enter to it. Then the Imam Ali entered the discussion of righteous and said:

فَالْمُتَّقُونَ فيها هُمْ اَهْلُ الْفَضائِلِ؛

Thus, the God-fearing, in it are the people of distinction.


The First Virtue: speaking the truth and right

 مَنْطِقُهُمُ الصَّوابُ،

Their speech is to the point.

The importance of the word is so much considered in verses and traditions. They have also spoken a lot of it in literature like the poem from Nasir al-Din Tusi.

Amir al-Mu'minin, in the words quoted to him, introduces a religous brother who has a high spiritual status, and he uses the interpretation of "friend of allah" for him. (Nahj al-Balāghah; wisdom 286).

Nahj al-Balagh's commentators have identified this person as Abu Zar or Osman ibn Mazoon. Amir al-Mu'minin mentioned the four qualities associated with speaking in the specifications for this divine brother, saying:

   كَانَ أَكْثَرَ دَهْرِهِ صَامِتاً فإِنْ قَالَ بَذَّ الْقَائِلِينَ وَنَقَعَ غَلِيلَ السَّائِلِينَ،

In Most of his life he was silent. If he spoke, he would have prevailed over the speakers and would quench the thirst of the questioners.

كَانَ يقُولُ مَا يَفْعَلُ وَلاَ يَقُولُ مَا لاَ يَفْعَلُ،

He said something that himself did it and didn’t say anything that him self wouldn’t done it.

كَانَ إذَا غُلِبَ عَلَى الْكَلاَمِ لَمْ يُغْلَبْ عَلَى السُّكُوتِ،

If he was defeated in speaking, in silence, no one would overcome him,

  كَانَ عَلَى مَا يَسْمَعُ أَحْرَصَ مِنْهُ عَلَى أَنْ يَتَكَلَّمَ.

He was greedier to hear than to say.


Speech and word can have a very devastating impact on society. Many conflicts and family or social disputes are due to the word that has been spoken by some people and disrupted a specific group. The Holy Quran says About Prophet Muhammad:

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ ۖ (آل عمران:159)

It is by of grace from God that you were gentle with them. Had you been harsh, hardhearted, they would have dispersed from around you.

It is not enough to just say the truth, but it is also important at the right time to speak. As Undesirable lying is, saying truth in inappropriate situation is too and also has many destructive effects. It has been also mentioned by Rumi in one of his poems.

Amir al-Muminin says in the virtues of Ahlul-Bayt:

«إِنْ نَطَقُوا صَدَقُوا، وَإِنْ صَمَتُوا لَمْ يُسْبَقُوا» (نهج البلاغه؛ خطبه154)

When they speak they speak the truth, but when they keep quiet no one can speak unless they speak.

Man must have authority over himself and to dominate his own self. At the time when speaking would lead to pride or with being silence no ones right will be violated, man should keep silence. And at the time when being silecnce would be understood as being educated and talking would lead to rightfulness, man should talk. The Holy Prophet is quoted as saying:

لَا يَسْتَقِيمُ إِيمَانُ عَبْدٍ حَتَّى يَسْتَقِيمَ قَلْبُهُ وَلَا يَسْتَقِيمُ قَلْبُهُ حَتَّى يَسْتَقِيمَ لِسَانُهُ (كنز العمّال: 24925)

Belief does not come to anyone until he’s heart came to true, and his heart does not come true until his speaking is fixed.

Loghman Hakim told his son:

«يا بني إن كنت زعمت ان الكلام من فضه فإن السكوت من ذهب(الكافي (ط - الإسلاميه)، ج 2، ص: 114)

My son! If you're thinking of talking as silver, so silent is real gold.

Many of the sins are rooted in misguided speech, and there of lot of sins that they relate to speaking, such as lie, absenteeism, too much talking, and if anyone cares about his language and words, he will be safe from many sins. Amir al-Mu'minin says:

وَلْيَخْزُنِ الرَّجُلُ لِسَانَهُ؛... وَاللَّهِ مَا أَرَى عَبْداً يَتَّقِي تَقْوَى تَنْفَعُهُ حَتَّى يَخْزُنَ لِسَانَهُ (نهج البلاغه؛ خطبه 176)

A man should control his tongue,… I do not find that fear of Allah benefits a man who practises it unless he controls his tongue.










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