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کد خبر : 255232
تاریخ انتشار : 4/21/2019 1:54:10 PM
تعداد بازدید : 173

Characteristic of the righteous (5)

Orator: ayatollah professor Mofatteh

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله ربّ العالمين و الحمد لله الذی لا مُضادّ له في مُلكه و لا مُنازِعَ لَهُ في أمره. الحمدالله الذی لا شريك لَهُ في خلقه ولا شبيه لَهُ في عَظَمَتِه (جزء من دعاء الإفتتاح) وصلّی الله علی سيدّنا ونبيّنا محمّد صلّی الله عليه وعلی آله الطاهرين واصحابه المنتجبين.

عبادالله ! أُوصيكم و نفسي بتقوی الله و اتّباع امره و نهیه


We said that “sermon of the righteous " is a speech from Amir al-Mu'minin in Nahj al-Balaghah, which refers to the attributes of the people of righteous, and is expressed in response to the request of Hamam bin Sharīh, who was a follower of imam Ali. In this sermon, Amir al-Mu'minin expresses the virtues of people of piety. We explained the first and second virtues that were "right and proper talking" and "moderation " in the past weeks.


Third virtue: humility and modesty

مَشْیُهُم التَّوَاضُعِ

Their way of dealing with other people is humble and meek.

Humility is a moral virtue that has been emphasized in the Qur'an and hadith and ethical and mystical texts, and of course there are positive and negative directions of this virtue that require careful attention. Imam Sadiq (as) says:

كَمَالُ الْعَقْلِ فِی ثَلَاثَةٍ: التَّوَاضُعِ لِلَّهِ وَ حُسْنِ الْیَقِینِ وَ الصَّمْتِ إِلَّا مِنْ خَیْرٍ

The perfection of the wisdom is in three things: humble against god, believe in good, silence except in cases of good.


The meaning of the word “gait” and "modesty"

The word “gait” means walking, amble, slow walking, and it refers to the way ahead, the trajectory, and the personal method in life.

The meaning of the word humility in all moral systems is almost the same and does not require a specific definition, although there are various definitions of it in Islamic sources and authority’s. Humility in the word means self-disdain, and it refers to humility. (Farahidi)

Some linguists have found some subtle distinctions between these words, for example, they refer to "humility" aside of ability and they refer to "disdain" as a sign of one's inability to another person, as human humility is not a disability against their servants. (Nahas, vol. 4, p. 442).

Humility in the Quran

In the Holy Quran, the word humility has not been used, but there are other vocabulary and interpretations that make up almost the same meaning, although the words of the word differentiate between these terms. And For example, they have said that "humility" is based on the validity of internal and external behavior  and "modesty" ( khoshou) is the validity of the sprint; or "humility" is related to language and deeds, and "modesty" (khoshou) is in heart and soul (Nahashi, vol. 4, p. 442).

Mamdouh (Praised) Humility

1.    Humility against god

In some cases, in the Holy Qur'an, there is a talk of humility against God, which is the kind of modesty of Mamdouh (praised):

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ؛ الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ (مؤمنون:1-2)

 Successful are the believers. Those who are humble in their prayers.

إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ غَفُورٌ ﴿فاطر:۲۸

From among His servants, the learned fear God. God is Almighty, Oft-Forgiving.

  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَأَخْبَتُوا إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴿هود:23﴾

As for those who believe and do good deeds, and humble themselves before their Lord—these are the inhabitants of Paradise, where they will abide forever.


2.     Humility against Muslims

The humility of the Prophet against other muslims is emphasized in two verses of the Holy Qur'an, and in one verse the issue of humility of the beloved people of God is to other believers is as well mentioned. These verses show the human relations between the rulers of the community with the citizens, and the citizens of a community with themselves. In the community recommended by the Holy Quran, there will be a spirit of modesty and humility in all aspects of the community:

وَاخْفِضْ جَنَاحَكَ لِمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿شعراء:215﴾

And lower your wing to those of the believers who follow you.

لَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَيْنَيْكَ إِلَى مَا مَتَّعْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجًا مِنْهُمْ وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَاخْفِضْ جَنَاحَكَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿حجر:۸۸﴾

Do not extend your eyes towards what we have bestowed on some couples of them to enjoy, and do not grieve over them, and lower your wing to the believers.

  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَنْ يَرْتَدَّ مِنْكُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ ﴿مائده:54﴾

O you who believe! Whoever of you goes back on his religion—God will bring a people whom He loves and who love Him, kind towards the believers, stern with the disbelievers. They strive in the way of God, and do not fear the blame of the critic.

  وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا ﴿فرقان:۶۳﴾

The servants of the Merciful are those who walk the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them, they say, “Peace.”

In this verse of the holly Quran, the social way and the way of dealing and connecting the believers of God with other citizens of the community is based on humility and modesty, not arrogance, and all the commentators of the Quran have understood it in the same way and no one of them  explains “ مشی “ In this verse to walking, it does not mean walking on the earth, but it is a mean of social relations.

3.     Humility against parents

Among the commands that the Quran gives to believers is humility against their parents:

وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُلْ رَبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا ﴿اسراء:۲۴﴾

And lower to them the wing of humility, out of mercy, and say, “My Lord, have mercy on them, as they raised me when I was a child.”

The concept of humility towards parents in this verse refers to the need for the best of humiliation of humankind against parents. We see that humility towards believers is mentioned only in the verses with the “lower your wing ", but in the case of the parent, the interpretation of " And lower to them the wing of humility “is used as the summit of humility against them.

The humility of "Mamdouh" is a great achievement in the world and the Hereafter. The expression of

«مَنْ تَوَاضَعَ لِلّهِ رَفَعَهُ اللّهُ

Whosoever humbles for Allah, Allah honors him

From The Prophet of God has repeatedly been replicated in various sources. (Sahih Muslim, p. 8, p. 21; Sunan al-Tarmadi, p. 3, p. 254)


 Indecent humility

It should be noted that humility that is accepted by Islam is different from abasement. The main motto of'Abba'd Allah, "Hayat Mana al-Dullah" is a basic principle for all believers who are not allowed to lose their human dignity. Therefore, when modesty and modesty will be tempered, it will be discredited. We observe that in the traditions of the Prophet and the Imams, humility is forbidden against some people, including:

1.     Humility against the arrogant

Prophet of Allah says:

إذا رأيتم المتواضعين من أمتي فتواضعوا لهم و إذا رأيتم المتكبرين فتكبروا عليهم

Be humble against the humble people of the Ummah, and you must be proud of yourself against the arrogant people.

2.     Modesty against the rich and powerful

Amir al-Mu'minin, about the humility of the poor people against the people of power and wealth, says that:

طوُبَی لِمَنْ... تَوَاضَعَ مِنْ غَیْرِ مَنْقَصَةٍ

Gods bless be upon a person who humbled without accepting defects.

مَنْ أَتَى غَنِيّاً فَتَوَاضَعَ لَهُ لِغِنَاهُ ذَهَبَ ثُلُثَا دِينِهِ

Everyone who goes to a wealthy person and humble to him for his wealth, losing two-thirds of his religion.

On the other hand, he said about the humility of the rich against the poor:

  مَا أَحْسَنَ تَوَاضَعَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ طَلَباً لِمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ

How good it is for the rich to humble themselves against the poor, to be closer to god.












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