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Date of publication : 7/30/2014 1:56:15 PM
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Islamic Studies 118- Islam and the Sharia 12

The conditions of the obliged include: a) the obliged should be wise; b) he or she can continue his or her life; c) When he or she wants to fulfill obligations, they should be able to do them; d) he or she should have enough knowledge about them. [2]

In the name of God, the Compassionate and  the Merciful

 

 الحمد لله ربّ العالمين و الحمد لله الذی لا مُضادّ له في مُلكه و لا مُنازِعَ لَهُ في أمره. الحمدالله الذی لا شريك لَهُ في خلقه ولا شبيه لَهُ في عَظَمَتِه (جزء من دعاء الإفتتاح) وصلّی الله علی سيدّنا ونبيّنا محمّد صلّی الله عليه وعلی آله الطاهرين واصحابه المنتجبين.

عبادالله ! أُوصيكم و نفسي بتقوی الله و اتّباع امره و نهیه.

 One of the  points about the sharia and the way the exalted God has specified for the happiness of life is completely clear and it is obvious that the goodness of each person is the same way that has been determined for two reasons:  firstly, the exalted God is wise and sagacious and his order is issued according to his wisdom and justice. Therefore, the responsibilities he leaves to human beings are out of corruptions and vices. Secondly, as long as conditions are not present for fulfilling obligations, the exalted God does not make human beings fulfill obligations. For example, although prayers include personal and social benefits, it was not wajib (necessary) as an obligation at the beginning of Be'that (prophet's revelation) since people were not ready enough to fulfill it. Moreover, all Islamic rules were not necessary to fulfill at once, but they became necessary to fulfill little by little when there were enough conditions.

 

Another point is that fulfilling obligations is necessary if there is enough chance to know rules, their aspects and conditions for fulfilling them. Hence, obligations the obliged cannot know are not issued by God. For example, before Eid-al Fitr arrives, the prohibition of fasting of that day should be said to the obliged; otherwise, punishing someone for his or her sins is not permitted before he or she knows them.[1]

 

It should be also said that all conditions related to obligations should be considered in issuing obligations in the sharia of the Islam, these conditions may be the nature of obligations, the obliged or the obligations.

The nature of obligations means that they should be out of vices and ugliness. Moreover, obligations should be issued by God before human beings  are obliged to fulfill them so that the obliged can have enough chance to know the conditions and aspects of his or her obligations.

 

Two points should be considered about the obliged: a) obligations should not be in a way that the obliged cannot fulfill. In other words, whatever can be done should be considered as obligations. Hence, it is not appropriate to oblige human being to fly in the sky because he or she cannot fly in the sky. b) Whatever is considered as obligations should be good. In other words, they should definitely have benefits; therefore, they are called wajib obligations. If not, they are called mustahab obligations. Of course, it is completely clear that if doing something is necessary, giving it up will have corrupted consequences and will be haram; therefore, human beings should refuse to give them up. Hence, fulfilling obligations should have benefits and be much better than doing other things.

 

The conditions of the person that obliges others to fulfill obligations include: a) he or she should know the benefits and the disadvantages of a job. In other words, he should know the attributes of an action so that he should not order others to vulgar and ugly actions; b) He should know how much to reward actions so that he can reward others fairly and anyone can receive his or her rewards; c) He should refuse to do vulgar actions and never does them so that he rewards people that obey him well.

 

The conditions of the obliged include: a) the obliged should be wise; b) he or she can continue his or her life; c) When he or she wants to fulfill obligations, they should be able to do them; d) he or she should have enough knowledge about them. [2]

 

Some have explained these conditions: researchers have considered general conditions of obligations as four things: maturity, wisdom, power and knowledge. We should know that these conditions are not to the same extent, but they are in different extents. In other words, maturity and wisdom are basic conditions of fulfilling obligations because immature and crazy people do not have obligations to fulfill and they are not reprimanded. Power is the basic condition of fulfilling obligations. In other words, persons that are not able to fulfill obligations are not reprimanded and their fulfillment is dependent on their power, as long as they cannot fulfill them, they are not reprimanded. knowledge is another condition of obligations. Obligations have been determined for ignorant people and they are not reprimanded as long as they are not aware of obligations.[3]

 

By paying attention to the conditions, it can be concluded that the Islam pays special attention to all conditions and responsibilities, shows the path and specifies obligations for human beings  so that he or she can be free in his or her life through the sharia of Islam. Therefore, if someone wants bliss and happiness in life and the doomsday and wants to achieve the desired perfection, he or she can reach perfect destination through the path specified in the sharia as he or she has the freedom and choice to obey none of the orders of God, but he or she should expect neither respect in this world nor reward in the doomsday. There is no question that such people will not have enough relaxation in society because if people ignore the sharia and the religious doctrines, they forget remembering God and the name of God. Therefore, separation from the sharia and religious doctrines makes people act according to their desires and devil needs. Then vices are replaced with virtues; as a consequence, the society will not move in the right path.

 

 



1. Abu Al-Hasan Shoarani , the translation and the explanation of the book '' Kashf Al-Morad'' p 457

2. The mentioned conditions are expressed in all theosophy books such as '' Tajrid Al-Eteghad'' written by Khaje Nasr Al-Din Tusi and '' Kashf Al-Morad'' written by Allame Helli

 

3. Deceased Sayyed Abd Al-Hussein Tayyeb, the book '' Kalam Al-Tayyeb'' v 1 p 27

 


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