Islamic Center Hamburg
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کد خبر : 83579
تاریخ انتشار : 9/16/2015 5:20:07 PM
تعداد بازدید : 516

the recognition of the Islam 140- Islam and human rights 16

Ayatollah Dr. Ramezani

In the name of God the Merciful and the Compassionate

 الحمد لله ربّ العالمين و الحمد لله الذی لا مُضادّ له في مُلكه و لا مُنازِعَ لَهُ في أمره. الحمدالله الذی لا شريك لَهُ في خلقه و لا شبيه لَهُ في عَظَمَتِه (جزء من دعاء الإفتتاح) وصلّی الله علی سيدّنا ونبيّنا محمّد صلّی الله عليه وعلی آله الطاهرين واصحابه المنتجبين.             

عبادالله ! أُوصيكم و نفسي بتقوی الله و اتّباع امره و نهیه.

We were discussing the first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We explained parts of this article and presented the Islamic point of view. On of the points mentioned about this article was human freedom and will which means human is born free. Explaining this part, we indicated that this matter is a feature of the creation of human and an ontological discussion. Quran states that human is born free and freedom is not given by other sources to human beings or it is possible to be taken away. But human is free in nature and like other gifts such as reason and heart, he is endowed with it by great God. Certainly it is proven by reason.

Therefore according to Islam, human is a resolute creature and he is endowed by this gift by God. In other word human is given so many gifts and blessings. He possesses a complex and unknown physical and material composition. And he is delicate and competent in spiritual dimension. The collection of these unique features causes human to be competent for taking the responsibility for the great divine deposit and God has invited him to the infinite eternal position:

«وَ اللَّهُ يَدْعُواْ إِلىَ‏ دَارِ السَّلَمِ».[1]

Because of these features such as freedom and will, human is in a position that he should choose and if he chooses the right path, he will get to that sacred goal and in case he deviates, he cannot make use of his capacities and potentiality.

  It is clarified that possession of reason, freedom and will by human which is mentioned in article one, is not a legal matter but it is a preliminary principle which is accepted before formulating human rights. There are two other points in first article that are pieces of advice rather than a legal matter: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.”

Islam has stated so many important orders and points about human rights and the necessity to act towards others in a spirit of brotherhood. This fact that human beings have equal rights because of their humanity is clear and race, nationality, traditions and language have no role in codification of human rights. All people are equal whether woman or man, child or adult and black or white and nobody is superior to others. The only factor that is the criterion for superiority is virtue and observing human and divine values. It means those who possess more moral virtues and observe human principles and try more in honesty, abnegation and helping other people, are more valuable. So Quran states:

«يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْناكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَ أُنْثى‏ وَ جَعَلْناكُمْ شُعُوباً وَ قَبائِلَ لِتَعارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَليمٌ خَبيرٌ »[2]

Human is an innate creature and knows rights and wrongs innately when he is born.

«فَأَلْهَمَها فُجُورَها وَ تَقْواها»[3]

Those who put themselves in the path of divine values will be saved and prosperous.

« قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّیها»[4]

But those who buried their capacities and their potentiality did not flourish, wouldn’t be successful and disappoint themselves.

«وَ قَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّیهَا».[5]

Human beings possess reason and freedom innately and they should direct their capacities in the path of monotheism. Nobody is born bad and evil but everybody is created based on a monotheistic nature.

«كُلُّ‏ مَوْلُودٍ يُولَدُ عَلَى الْفِطْرَةِ»[6] و « فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْها»[7]

Therefore all human beings know that God is their creator.

« يَعْنِي الْمَعْرِفَةَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ خَالِقُه‏»[8]

 Human beings with these common features, are entitled to some rights and responsibilities and they are equal in rights because they are human and nobody is superior to others. So based on Islamic point of view people should not be divided to ruler and ruled or free and slave, rather they are all in a monotheistic system so they should be respected. Since the parents of human are Adam and Eve, human beings are brothers and sisters and should feel responsibility towards one another and try to solve problems in a spirit of brotherhood.

Human beings have rights towards one another and Islam binds them to adhere to these rights since without such adherence, they are not considered Muslim. So prophet Muhammad (PBUH) states:

«مَنْ أَصْبَحَ مِنْ أُمَّتِي وَ هِمَّتُهُ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ مَنْ لَمْ‏ يَهْتَمَ‏ بِأُمُورِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَلَيْسَ مِنْهُم‏».[9]

This order is not a slogan rather it is a duty and obligation which muslims are responsible for it and if anybody can solve a problem but neglect it, he will be reprimanded and rebuked.

If everybody thought like this, many problems of human society would be solved.

But unfortunately this humane look to others, is becoming weaker and weaker therefore social and spiritual interests of people are being neglected and ignored.

Islam emphasizes the spirit of brotherhood. Amir Al-Muminin orders Malek:

: « فَإِنَّهُمْ صِنْفَانِ إِمَّا أَخٌ‏ لَكَ‏ فِي الدِّينِ وَ إِمَّا نَظِيرٌ لَكَ فِي الْخَلْق؛[10]  

People are divided into two groups: they are your religious brothers or human beings like you so they should be respected. (So the authorities of society should like people from the bottom of their heart and they should not take this as a slogan).

So in Islam, acting in a spirit of brotherhood is not just an advice but it is an order whit legal aspect. If anybody doesn’t respect the rights of his religious and human brothers, he will be rebuked and reprimanded

1. Sura Al-Yunus, 25

2. Al- Hujurat, 13

3. Al-Shams, 8

4. Al-shams, 9

5. Al –shams, 10

6. Al-Kafi, v 2, p, 13

7. Al-Rum, 30

8. Al-Kafi, v2, p13

 9. Al- Kafi, v2, p164

10. Nahj Al-Balagha, letter 53, p 427

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